Rabies Dapat Dicegah

Rabies dikategorikan sebagai salah satu “neglected disease“, yang bermakna penyakit yang kurang diperhatikan belakangan ini. Korban meninggal infeksi rabies mencapai 60.000 jiwa per tahunnya, dan sebagian dari mereka adalah anak-anak. Mungkin tidak tampak banyak dibandingkan jumlah penduduk dunia yang mencapai milyaran, tapi tetap saja memerlukan perhatian kita semua. Rabies merupakan penyakit zoonotik yang disebabkan oleh virus. Menyebar pada manusia melalui kontak dengan material yang terinfeksi, umumnya melalui saliva (ludah) dari gigitan atau cakaran hewan. Anjing merupakan sumber penularan terbanyak, dan penyebab kematian pada manusia akibat rabies terbesar. Dan kasus fatal banyak terjadi, sekitar 95%, di Afrika dan Asia, termasuk Indonesia di dalamnya. Rabies dapat dicegah, terutama di daerah-daerah yang endemis rabies, atau memiliki populasi anjing sebagai hewan domestik yang cukup besar.

The most cost-effective strategy for preventing rabies in people is by eliminating rabies in dogs through vaccination. Vaccination of animals (mostly dogs) has reduced the number of human (and animal) rabies cases in several countries, particularly in Latin America. However, recent increases in human rabies deaths in parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America suggest that rabies is re-emerging as a serious public health issue. Preventing human rabies through control of domestic dog rabies is a realistic goal for large parts of Africa and Asia, and is justified financially by the future savings of discontinuing post-exposure prophylaxis for people. – WHO.

Pendekatan paling rasional saat ini adalah melalui vaksinasi terhadap hewan-hewan yang menjadi sumber penularan rabies. Karena dengan ini kasus kematian akibat rabies dapat ditekan jumlahnya; apalagi mengingat 4 dari 10 kematian akibat rabies terjadi pada anak-anak; sesuatu yang bisa menyelamatkan generasi penerus kita.

Memang banyak pihak yang berupaya mengambil jalan pintas seperti memusnahkan hewan-hewan yang berpotensi menyebarkan rabies. Tapi praktek ini sudah dipandang tidak manusiawi lagi, terutama jika kita mengacu pada hak-hak hewan. Maka dari itu harapan terbesar terletak para pemilik binatang peliharaan seperti anjing ini untuk memiliki kesadaran memvaksinasi hewan peliharaan mereka. Dan jika banyak anjing liar, maka kesadaran warga sekitar dalam membantu proses vaksinasi akan menjadi senjata utama menekan kasus rabies. Untuk informasi lebih lengkap tentang rabies, Anda bisa menemukannya di halaman-halaman berikut:

  1. Dalam negeri: Subdit Pengendalian Zoonis, Direktorat Pengendalian Penyakit Bersumber Binatang, Ditjen PP dan PL. Telp: (021) 4266270 / 4201255 / 4247608 ext. 151.
  2. Luar negeri: Global Alliance for Rabies Control: http://rabiesalliance.org/.

Jangan lupa bahwa setiap tanggal 28 Oktober diperingati sebagai Hari Rabies Sedunia, ini menjadi momen yang baik untuk menilai kembali bagaimana keamanan lingkungan tempat tinggal terkait dengan potensi infeksi rabies, baik bagi hewan peliharaan yang ada atau pun bagi masyarakat sendiri.

Hari Rabies Sedunia
Logo peringatan Hari Rabies Sedunia, disediakan oleh Global Alliance for Rabies Control. Ingatkan untuk mengontrol infeksi rabies di sekitar lingkungan Anda, terutama jika merupakan daerah endemis rabies.

Waspada Rabies
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4 tanggapan untuk “Rabies Dapat Dicegah

  1. kalau penyakit rabies ini kalau di dalam transisi demografi masukknya di tahap berapa mas? pada zaman dulu rabies sudah ada atau semenjak alat-alat kedokteran makin maju ini saja?

    Suka

    1. Ini peta waktu Rabies, dikutip dari: http://www.rabiesfree.org/page26.htm 🙂

      2300 BC

      Dog owners in the Babylonian city of Eshnunna are fined heavily for deaths caused by their dogs biting people.

      800-700 BC

      Homer likens Hector to a “raging dog” in The Iliad, one of the oldest Greek poems known today. He writes that Sirius, the dog star of Orion, “exerts a malignant influence upon the health of mankind”.

      500 BC

      Democritus, a Greek philosopher records a case of canine rabies.

      400 BC

      Aristotle writes that “dogs suffer from the madness. This causes them to become very irritable and all animals they bite become diseased.”

      By now, the Greeks have two special rabies gods; one to prevent rabies, (Arisaeus, son of Apollo) and a one to heal rabies, (Artemis).

      001-100 AD

      Rabies is widespread across the Roman Empire, Greece and Crete.

      The Roman Cardanus describes saliva from a rabid dog as a virus – the Latin word for poison.

      Pliny the Elder also devises a series of treatments based around the idea that rabies is a tongue worm.

      A Roman physician named Celsus
      takes a special interest in rabies and discovers saliva alone contains
      the virus. He recommends cleaning, sucking and burning (cauterizing) the
      wound before leaving it open so the virus could drain out. This will
      remain the only accepted treatment for the next 1800 years.

      201-300

      The treatment for rabies in cattle is described by early veterinary medicine writer, Vegetius Renatus.

      501-600

      Aetious, a Mesopotamian physician, writes an accurate description of dog rabies symptoms.

      601-700

      Greek physician, Paulus Aegineta records the difference between fatal hydrophobia caused by dog bites and simple hydrophobia stemming from a different cause.

      801-900

      Syrian
      doctors believed hydrophobia was incurable. They helped suffering
      patients by giving water disguised inside drops of honey.

      Rhazes, (Al-Razi) a Persian physician identifies hydrophobia and further describes rabies symptoms in humans.

      1001-1100

      The writings of another Arab physician, Avicenna,
      (Abu Ali Sina) mark a step forward in knowledge about the disease. His
      books were used in European medical schools for nearly 500 years.

      1026

      Madness in dogs is recorded in the laws of Howel the Good, of Wales. This is the earliest record of rabies in Great Britain.

      1198

      Poisons and Their Antidotes, by Talmud scholar and physician Moses Maimonides, contains remedies against bites from mad dogs.

      1271

      First large rabies outbreak reported. 30 people
      die after rabid wolves invade villages in Franconia (Germany).

      1400

      During the 15th century, Spain is ravaged by canine rabies

      1500

      During the 16th century, Christian Europeans
      believe a patron saint named St. Hubert will cure rabies. Many travel to
      his shrine at Liege, Belgium and die of ‘the madness’. Jean Gerson, a French theologian, speaks out against superstitious practices in religion.

      1586

      Canine rabies spreads through Flanders, (North Belgium) Austria, Turkey and Hungary.

      1604

      Rabies reaches Paris, causing panic.

      1671

      Superstitious practices for treating rabies are condemned by the Sorbonne.

      1700

      Rabies spreads through Europe during the 18th century.

      1703

      The first case of rabies is reported in the
      Americas by a priest in Mexico. He is told off for raising the problem
      by his superiors in Spain.

      1734-5

      Canine rabies appears in England.

      1750

      Rabies is reported in Barbados among dogs and
      hogs. They are said to die around three days after getting sick.

      1752

      Orders to shoot dogs on sight are given in England when rabies appears around St. James, London.

      1753

      Canine rabies is present in the State of Virginia, North America.

      1759-1762

      Serious outbreak of rabies reported in
      London. All dogs are confined for one month. Dogs on the street are
      killed and a reward of 2 shillings per dog is offered. The reward
      prompts barbaric scenes of killing in the streets.

      1763

      Serious rabies outbreaks reported in France,
      Italy and Spain. Authorities slaughter dogs. In Madrid, Spain, 900 dogs
      are killed in just one day.

      1768-1771

      Rabies breaks out in Boston and other North
      American towns. Foxes and dogs carry the disease to farm animals. The
      symptoms are unusual and rabies is reported as a new disease.

      1774

      Rabies is a general disease throughout England.
      People are discouraged to keep dogs. Bigger rewards – up to five
      shillings – are paid for each dog killed.

      1776-1778

      The French West Indies is invaded by rabies. Cattle and people are bitten by infected dogs.

      1785-1789

      Rabies is now common across North America.

      1789

      A New Yorker dies from hydrophobia after skinning an infected cow.

      1790-1821

      Rabies is common in France and Silesia
      (now Poland and the Czech Republic). It spreads through wolves and foxes
      in central Europe.

      1797

      Rabies appears on Rhode Island.

      1800

      Rabies becomes widespread in Northern, Western
      and Eastern Europe during the 9th century. It is common in the Ukraine.
      There are accounts of European villagers dying from contact with mad
      wolves, foxes and dogs. There is also a reappearance of rabies in North
      America and it moves up to Canada. And in England, it never goes away.

      1803

      Hundreds of dead foxes are spotted at the foot
      of the Jura Alps, eastern France. This outbreak, the largest yet
      recorded lasts for thirty years and wipes out all foxes in some areas,
      terrifying villagers. In the same year, rabies appears in Peru for the
      first time.

      1804

      Zinke, a German scientist demonstrates rabies is
      passed through saliva by conducting experiments on animals.

      1806

      Dogs belonging to English officers introduce rabies to Argentina.

      1810

      Rabies reappears in eastern USA and Ohio.

      1825

      Rabies enters the Black Forest, Germany.

      1835

      Rabies appears in Chile and kills many.

      1881

      French chemist Louis Pasteur and his assistant, Physician-scientist Emile Roux, begin research on a cure for rabies.

      1883

      Roux presents a medical paper about the rabies
      research he as been doing with Pasteur. Roux creates a rabies vaccine
      from the spinal cord of an infected animal and tests it on dogs.

      1885

      Joseph Meister is mauled by a
      rabid dog and brought to Pasteur. Pasteur gives him the rabies vaccine
      immediately, despite the risks to his own career as he is not a doctor,
      but a chemist. The treatment was successful, and Pasteur was hailed as a
      hero.

      1892

      Canadian physician William Osler,
      describes hydrophobia in a medical textbook. He recommends careful
      washing and treatment of the wound. Osler is unaware of Pasteur’s
      breakthrough.

      1953

      The first US case of rabies in a bat is reported by the CDC.

      1959

      Dr. Robert Kissling developed the fluorescent antibody test for rabies.

      Suka

  2. kalau di transisi demografi, penyakit ini masuknya ke fase berapa mas? soalnya saya jarang mendengar orang di sekitar saya yang kena infeksi rabies sekarang

    Suka

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